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Anxiety in Dogs and Cats    

Dr. Al Townshend Anxiety is an all-too-common natural condition in our cherished pets, just as it is in humans. It has been estimated that up to 75% of dogs and 20-25% of cats have had anxiety issues at some point in their lives. It can be a short-term emotional experience resulting from a brief encounter […]

My Dog Just Got Skunked!!     

Dr. Al Townshend The age-old adage “curiosity killed the cat” can also hold true for our canine companions. Skunks are somewhat friendly until another animal comes too close, and then all hell can break loose.  The skunk has two glands around the rectum (similar to the anal glands of a dog or cat) that have […]

Food Intolerances Are Not Allergies     

Dr. Al Townshend Unlike food allergies, food intolerances; are not immune responses, so there is no general, whole-body reaction. are as a result of irritation. Something in the diet is causing inflammation and irritation. are often associated with vomiting and diarrhea more commonly than skin issues. can be to any ingredient in the food recipe […]

Weight Management: Gaining Weight     

Dr. Al Townshend Before we go any further, how do you know your pet us underweight? Many Guardians have the notion their pet is too thin when actually they have a normal, slightly lean body conformation.   How Do You Know Your Pet is too Thin? One way to tell is to look at the […]

Palliative Care and Hospice for Pet     

Every pet Guardian is aware that there are three stages in the life of our cherished pets: puppy/kitten, adult, and senior. There is another phase in every life that we often fail to realize until it is upon us: the “end-of-life” phase. For some, the end-of-life is the point a pet dies, but for most, […]

Fleas and Ticks – And All-Too-Common Problem for Pets and Their Guardians      

Dr. Al Townshend Both fleas and ticks are a world-wide problem for many different species of animals including beloved pets and their human Guardians. They are much more than an irritation or nuisance. Both fleas and ticks are carriers of some of the most serious diseases seen in humans and pets.   Fleas Fleas are […]

What are Omega 3 Fatty Acids and What are the Benefits of Supplementing?     

Dr. Al Townshend Today, Guardians are aware of the importance of the nutrition they provide for their cherished pets. It is a primary factor in encouraging a long and healthy life. Making sure a pet’s diet is easily digested and includes optimum nutritional levels that promote health and well-being is the goal of everyone committed […]

The Gut Microbiome and Those Essential “Good Bacteria”     

Dr. Al Townshend A microbiome is generally described as a community of microorganisms living together in a particular habitat. Many are not aware that animals and plants have microbiomes both internally and externally. Two examples of animal microbiomes are the skin and gut. There are millions of microscopic organisms that live a natural coexistence on […]

The Importance of Good Manners     

Dr. Al Townshend Good manners are an essential part of getting along in society. We all need to get along and respect one another. Our pets need good manners for the same reasons; however, dogs and cats need good manners to get along with humans, and they need a different set of manners to live […]

Between Annual Veterinary Visits    

 Dr. Al Townshend The veterinarian is a trusted advocate for the health and well-being of every pet. They have the training, knowledge, expertise, and tools to examine an animal on the outside and the inside. They recommend vaccination schedules, check for parasites, and draw blood to ensure all organs and bodily functions are working efficiently […]

Why is a Pet’s Behavior so Important?     

 Dr. Al Townshend Our pets often become one of our best friends, and it makes sense. They shower us with their love, affection and devotion. After a hard day’s work, when coming home, who is at the door ready to great us with a gracious welcome as if we have been away for an eternity? […]

A Pet’s Behavior Needs Direction     

Dr. Al Townshend Helping to shape a child’s behavior is a part of being a good parent. Our canine and feline family members also need guidance in proper behavior to become an accepted and valued part of the family. The famous humorist Will Rogers said it best; “Dogs were placed on this earth to please […]

Eyes, Ears, and Smell Keep Our Pets Safe     

Dr. Al Townshend Our canine and feline companions have evolved as predators. Sharp eyesight, a keen sense of smell, and acute hearing were essential for survival. While the domestic dog and cat no longer rely on these senses for survival today, they are still critically dependent on them. Vision, smell, and hearing are essential for […]

Pet Cancer and the Guardian     

Dr. Al Townshend According to The Veterinary Cancer Society, cancer is the leading cause of death in 47% of dogs, especially dogs over age ten, and 32% of cats. It has been estimated that approximately 6 million dogs and almost 6 million cats are diagnosed with some form of cancer each year. For most, the […]

Slippery Elm, One of Nature’s Best Remedies     

The Slippery Elm (Ulmus fulva) is a tree native to North America. The inner bark has been used for centuries and is a soothing medicinal remedy.     The Elm’s inner bark contains substances that become a thick gel when mixed with water. When taken orally, it coats, soothes, and protects the mucus lining of […]

Holidays and Celebrations can be Stressful for Pets     

Dr. Al Townshend Christmas, Hanukkah, Kwanzaa, New Years, Thanksgiving Day, Halloween, birthdays, and anniversaries are all exciting times for us all, but how do your pets react to these festive times? Planning Ahead These events and how we celebrate them often take considerable planning and preparation well in advance to be successful and a joy […]

What Comes Out the Rear is Just as Important as What Goes in the Mouth    

Dr. Al Townshend The butt of a dog or cat is not the typical discussion Guardians have about their pets, but it can be an important consideration for their health and well-being.   A Little Anatomy The rectum and anus control the removal of fecal waste from the body.  Numerous nerve endings around the rectum […]

The Senior Period in a Pet’s Life is Special     

Dr. Al Townshend We are all aware that we begin to age the day we are born. Our pets are no different; they go through three different primary stages as they age.  Puppies and kittens grow and develop. Their body grows, and the tissues become more efficient and more robust. The brain begins to learn, […]

Skin and Coat Problems Can be the First Sign of Bigger Problems     

Dr. Al Townshend The skin is the largest organ in the body and one of the most important when it comes to protecting the body. The skin and hair are good indicators of the health of a pet. The hair should be shiny and smooth, and the skin should be supple and clean. Selective breeding […]

Canine Diabetes    

Dr. Al Townshend Diabetes mellitus is a disease of the pancreas. The pancreas is a vital organ that has two primary functions. Some of the cells of the pancreas produce the enzymes essential for the digestion of protein, fat, and carbohydrates. The other cells of the pancreas, beta cells, are responsible for making insulin that […]

Cancer: Understanding the Risks and How to Combat Them     

Dr. Al Townshend According to the American Veterinary Medical Association, approximately 1 in 4 dogs, and over 50% of dogs over 10 years of age are likely to develop some form of Cancer. Additionally, Colorado State University estimates that 1 in 5 cats will be diagnosed with Cancer in their lifetimes. Guardians understand that their […]

Joint Health: Prevention is Key to a Long, Happy and Healthy Life     

Dr. Al Townshend The domestic dogs and cats we know today evolved as predators. They are designed for stealth, agility, and in the case of the dog, endurance. Their ability to survive depended on these abilities. Fortunately, our four-legged companions don’t need those characteristics to survive today; however, they didn’t lose their desire to be […]

Treats     

Dr. Al Townshend It seems that we are all spending more time with our pets these days, and it has enhanced the appreciation we have for our relationship and the benefits for both pet and Guardian.  Many Guardians have experienced the improved health that comes with more time with pets. More exercise walking and playing […]

Pancreatitis is a Serious Medical Condition in Dogs and Cats     

Dr. Al Townshend Pancreatitis is a medical condition caused by inflammation of the pancreas. It is an all-too-common problem for dogs and cats that can be life-threatening. While the symptoms are similar in both the canine and feline, the causes and treatment are different. Part of the pancreas is concerned with controlling blood glucose and […]

Do You Feed Your Pet to Satisfy Their Appetite?     

Dr. Al Townshend For most pet Guardians, the time we spend feeding our pets is a pleasing and positive experience. For the dog it has been that way since man and canine first developed a relationship some 15,000 years ago, and it led to the wild dog (wolf) being the first species that man domesticated. […]

Environmental Allergies can be a Challenge     

Dr. Al Townshend An environmental allergy is an abnormal reaction by the immune system to a substance in the environment. Pets can become exposed to the offending substance (an allergen) by inhaling it, swallowing with food or through exposure to the skin, eyes or nose. Most environmental reactions are to plant, animal and insect proteins, […]

Dental Health is Critical for Long-Term Wellness     

Dr. Al Townshend The health of the teeth is a critical factor in the long-term health of every animal. When veterinarians, doctors, and dentists talk about dental health, they are referring to the whole mouth and not just the teeth. Oral health encompasses the teeth, gums, tongue, throat, the lining of the mouth and cheeks.  […]

Exercise and Play are Key Factors in the Health and Happiness of Every Pet    

Dr. Al Townshend Exercise is an essential and critical factor in a pet’s health, both socially, mentally, and physically. The type of exercise we provide our pets can come in several forms, all of which can have specific benefits for the pet and their Guardians. The form or type of exercise we provide can depend […]

Fighting the War on Pet Obesity is Crucial for Long Term Health     

Dr. Al Townshend Pet obesity and the effects of a pet being overweight can significantly impact its long-term health. The 2018 survey of veterinary clinics by the Association for Pet Obesity Prevention estimates that 60% of cats and 56% of dogs in the United States are overweight or obese. Dr. Ernie Ward, the association’s founder, […]

Tis the Season     

Dr. Al Townshend The holidays are a time of peace, joy, and goodwill to all. Families come together to celebrate their faith, their bond to one another, and their friends and community. The family pets will often be included in many of the events in the home this time of the year. It is the […]

Diabetes in Dogs and Cats     

Dr. Al Townshend Diabetes, or diabetes mellitus, is a condition that can occur when the body cannot utilize glucose. Glucose is the primary source of energy for the cells of the body. Insulin, which is produced by the cells of the pancreas, is necessary for the transport of glucose into the cells of the body. […]

Keeping Your Pet Cool During the “Dog Days” of Summer    

Dr. Al Townshend What has become known as the “Dog Days of Summer” are those hot July and August periods often associated with excessive heat, drought, and thunderstorms. The phrase is actually a reference to the fact that, during this time, the sun occupies the same region of the sky as Sirius, the brightest star […]

Anticipating the Potential Stress of Holiday Celebrations     

Dr. Al Townshend Canada Day and Independence Day have long been traditionally celebrated outdoors with parades, fireworks, family- and community gatherings, good food, and cheer. All have the potential to be extremely stressful on many pets. Anticipating potential stress-threats and preparing for them can avert disaster and help your pet survive the day and possibly […]

Sensitive Stomachs 4: The Yin and Yang of Nutrition     

By Dr. Al Townshend Digestive problems that occur relatively infrequently (once a month), such as vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, excessive gas, growling stomach, and depressed appetite, are often referred to as signs of a sensitive stomach. Most of the time, the issues are frustrating but not dangerous or life-threatening.  In light of this, many Guardians have […]

Sensitive Stomachs 3: Medical Concerns     

The challenges and symptoms of “Sensitive Stomachs” can be frustrating for both Guardians and their pets as they can be inconsistent, symptoms may vary, and the triggers can change over time. In saying this, not all symptoms of a sensitive stomach have a simple solution that can be resolved quickly. Some sensitive stomach signs are […]

Building a Better Bowl     

When it comes to feeding the family, a parent’s goal is to provide healthy and nutritious family favorites in a pleasing variety for everyone. The same is true for the family pets. Filling the bowl with very palatable (pleasing) and nutritious recipes encourages a long, happy, and healthy life for all pets. Traditionally, pets are […]

Sensitive Stomachs 2: External Stimuli     

Sometimes a sensitive stomach may be a result of an external stimulus, condition, or impact. Understanding what the impacts are, can help Guardians to identify if a sensitive stomach is symptomatic of large issue. Issues That May Impact Stomach Sensitivities: Food Allergies Most allergies, found in our pets, are reactions to proteins in the diet. […]

Sensitive Stomachs 1: Concerns     

One of the most common concerns that prompt Guardians to take their pets to the veterinarian are digestive issues. Veterinarians often hear from Guardians that their pet has a sensitive stomach.  Most would agree that the term “sensitive stomach” is most commonly used to describe digestive symptoms that tend to reoccur once a month or […]

What is Integrative Veterinary Care?    

Dr. Al Townshend Today, humans and their companion animals are living longer than ever before. There is much to be thankful for when it comes to modern medicine for both humans and animals.  Increased interest in living a more natural way of life may also play a significant role in extending the lives of humans […]

Prevention and Your Veterinarian    

Dr. Al Townshend Veterinarians today are extremely dedicated to protecting the health and well-being of animals and humans. The role of a veterinarian is varied and includes public health, human and animal research, teaching, animal welfare, careers in industry, the military, and the general care and welfare of all animals. When it comes to the […]

Saying Goodbye Part 2     

Pets today are living longer than ever before, and that’s a good thing! A long, happy life for our pets is the goal of every Guardian. The longer our pets live, and we enjoy a positive relationship with them, the closer and tighter the bond becomes. We depend on them, and they rely on us.  […]

Ways to Keep Your Pet Active During the Winter Months     

By Dr. Al Townshend Winter, especially in Canada and the northern United States, can bring extremely cold weather that can put a pet at risk. It is still essential that pets get enough exercise, even with the colder temperatures. Even though many northern states and Canadian provinces experience winter temperatures far below freezing, pets still […]

How Cold is Too Cold for your Pet?     

Generally, if the outside temperature is 45°F (7.2°C) or above, cold weather protection is not a concern. Once the thermometer begins to drop and approaches freezing (32°F or 0°C), some considerations should be taken into account before going outside with a pet. Cats in the north generally prefer being inside in the winter. A cat […]

Spending Time with Your Pet    

By Dr. Al Townshend The most important reason to spend time with your pet is that it is quality time for both you and your pet. Dogs have long been called “Man’s Best Friend”. Today, studies suggest that all pets are our best friends. That includes men, women, and children. It’s been estimated that over […]

The Importance of Fun and Play    

By Dr. Al Townshend Dedicating time during each day to play with your pet is essential for the health of the pet and for your relationship with the pet. Both dogs and cats have evolved as active, intuitive animals. They need physical and mental stimulation to maintain their physical and mental health. Inactivity and boredom […]

Loving Your Favorite Chewer     

By Dr. Al Townshend Dogs love to chew, and it’s their instinct to spend time doing just that. The impulse to chew begins early, and it is crucial to direct the chewing away from the furniture and other inappropriate items. Like human infants with teething toys, puppies frequently chew as their baby teeth fall out, […]

Caring For Your Senior Pet     

Aging is a process we will all experience. Unfortunately, our beloved pets will age much faster than we do. Many Guardians wonder how much time their pets have left and how they can slow down the process of aging. By ages 7-8, Veterinary Medicine considers most dogs a senior, and cats a senior by age […]

Tummy Trouble     

By Dr. Al Townshend Our pets, like their Guardians, are known to suffer from digestive issues. Causes can range from a simple digestive upset to serious medical conditions. According to statistics compiled by Embrace Pet Insurance in 2018, gastrointestinal issues were the most common reason why pets went to the veterinarian. The average cost was […]

Things You Can do to Help Your Pet’s Digestion     

By Dr. Al Townshend Today, Guardians understand that quality nutrition and proper digestion are keys to a long, happy and healthy life for their beloved pets. They are also aware that the cost of better, natural nutrition is significant, especially when compared to lesser quality foods often marketed through multiple media outlets. Guardians that want […]

Prebiotics and Probiotics are Essential to Your Pet’s Digestive and Immune Health    

By Dr. Al Townshend The term Probiotics refers to the live microorganisms (mostly bacteria) that inhabit the digestive tract of all animals. They are the specific microorganisms that can exert benefit when in the proper levels in the digestive tract. Many refer to them as the “Good Bacteria” because they are so important to the […]

Why Rawhide is Bad for Your Pet?    

By Dr. Al Townshend The canine species has evolved as a predator. As such, they use their powerful jaws to hunt and consume their prey. Chewing keeps their teeth clean and their gums healthy, so they can effectively capture and kill. While the domestic dog of today no longer needs to hunt for its food, […]

Traveling Safely (How to Keep Your Pet Safe)     

By Dr. Al Townshend Having your pet along when you travel can bring even more pleasure to the trip and to the experiences at your destination. That all sounds fine but unless one plans well in advance the experience can be a disaster for the Guardian and for the pet. Even taking your pet on […]

Tips on Training Your Pets     

Dr. Al Townshend When it comes to our pets, many consider training to be what we once referred to as obedience training. Today we know that training should go far beyond just learning a few commands. Everything begins before the pet comes home. What are the house rules? Is getting on the bed or other […]

Why is Dental Health So Important?     

Dr. Al Townshend Do you brush your pet’s teeth daily? Because it turns out – many of us don’t! According to the American Veterinary Dental College, by age 3, many dogs and cats will develop dental disease. As with humans, dental health for our pets is one of the essential things we Guardians can do to […]

Avoiding Obesity – How You Can Keep Your Pet Fit      

The numbers speak for themselves – America has a weight problem. Rather, 53% of dogs in America and 58% of cats are considered either overweight or obese, while in the U.S, currently about ⅓ Of American Adults are also considered obese. It’s clear we are not taking enough steps to tackle the fat – so […]

Top 5 Ways To Prevent Cancer In Pets     

Cancer is the most common disease that occurs in pets. It reduces their quality of life and shortens their life-span. Beginning early in a pet’s life to reduce the risks can have a huge impact on the time and quality of life a pet has with their family. #1 – Choose Your Puppy or Kitten […]

Joint Health Treatment     

Fortunately, there are myriad ways to treat joint problems in pets. Below is a list of some conventional treatments and complementary therapies that can help relieve pain, get your pet moving again and keep their joints healthy and strong. It’s always advised to talk with your veterinarian to help determine the best course of treatment […]

Joint Health Prevention     

Dogs and cats are born to run, jump and play, free of pain and joint problems, but some still develop joint and mobility issues that can seriously affect their quality of life. The good news is that many joint issues are not part of the normal aging process and are preventable if addressed early on. […]

Digestive Enzymes     

Digestive enzymes are substances that nature put into the bodies of our pets (and our own) to unlock the nutrition contained in food. Enzymes are also found in plants and raw foods in their natural state. Almost every process that goes on in the body requires enzymes. Nobel-prize winner Dr. James B. Sumner suggested many […]

Pets as Gifts    

Are you thinking of giving a pet as a surprise gift, you might want to reconsider. To many people, a puppy or kitten is the perfect symbol of the true spirit of giving. They represent wonderment, innocence, exuberant energy, unconditional love, and hope for the future. While pet Guardianship is undoubtedly rewarding, getting a pet […]

Making The Right Choice   

Finding A Responsible Breeder For A Purebred Puppy The Canadian Kennel Club When you have narrowed your breed choices to a shortlist and are about to move to the next and most crucial step – the dog’s actual purchase – it is imperative that you locate a reputable breeder. As with any expensive purchase, buying […]

The Dangers of Rawhide for Dogs    

It is natural for all dogs and especially puppies to chew – that’s one of the ways they explore and learn. Rawhide is one of the most common items given to dogs to chew but beware as it is also the most dangerous.   What is Rawhide? Rawhide is the tough inner layer of bull, […]

The Canine Biting Louse – Trichodectes Canis    

Trichodectes Canis Is your dog scratching a lot? Are they having trouble sleeping (restless)? Is the coat dry and “scruffy” looking? They may have Alberta’s most prevalent canine parasite – lice! Canine Biting Lice are very common in Alberta, especially during the winter and spring months. Recent years have been especially ‘good’ years for lice, […]

Pet Health Myths     

Pet Planet believes good health starts with superior nutrition, which is why we choose the foods we carry with great care. Responsible pet Guardians make decisions for the animals in their care based on advice they receive from professionals in the pet industry. Occasionally, the nutritional information from one source may contradict the information provided by […]

Possible Signs of Cancer in Dogs and Cats and Options for Treatment     

The Possible Signs of Cancer The rate of cancer in our animal companions is alarming. Recognizing the signs that THE disease may be present in your pet is the first step in helping. With many illnesses, early diagnosis and treatment are key to favorable progress.  The signs of cancer are varied and can be seen […]

Weight Loss Q&A      

My significant other says our dog is fat – I think they’re just fluffy. How can we tell? What should we do if they are overweight? Between 25 and 40 percent of dogs are overweight, but Guardians often don’t know it until they take their dog to the veterinarian for another reason. You can judge […]

How to Choose a Dog Daycare    

Today, Guardians have a closer relationship with their dogs than ever before. They want the best for the pet every day and all day. However, a heavy work schedule and being away for long periods during the day can impact the emotional and physical well-being of a dog. Canine daycare provides love and attention, tons […]

Head Halters for Dogs     

The Problem with Head Halters by Suzanne Clothier Copyright 2000 Suzanne Clothier. All rights reserved. Used by permission. www.flyingdogpress.com Head halters, like ALL training equipment, need to be used carefully. They are NOT appropriate for every dog. Humane trainers need to be aware of and carefully consider the ramifications of any training equipment. NO training […]

Destructive Behavior    

Too many dogs are abandoned to the backyard, or given up for adoption because of destructive behavior. Accepting the responsibility for a dog’s behavior means being prepared to deal with such situations, and to make an effort to change or improve the pet’s behavior. Two reasons why a dog may engage in destructive behavior are […]

Understanding Grooming Scissors    

When grooming your dog at home, your most important tool is a pair of scissors. Scissors are to a groomer what a paintbrush is to an artist. Scissor style, quality, size, weight, cutting ability and tension vary, and each variation results in a different “feel” in your hand. When contemplating the purchase of scissors, consider […]

The Shedding Challenge     

Does your dog or cat shed like mad? Is hair all over your house, your car, and your clothes? Let’s face it, pets shed. At least once a year, dogs and cats “blow” their coats, losing old hair and growing new. Female pets often blow their coats following a heat cycle, pregnancy, or nursing. Many […]

The Importance of Grooming     

All pets require regular grooming for their comfort and well being. Each pet’s coat type will determine the amount and frequency of grooming, but some elements are common to all pets, such as nail trimming, tooth brushing, ear cleaning and brushing. Monitoring Health through Grooming Regular grooming also has some less obvious but no less […]

Should I Spay or Neuter?   

By Jane Johnson of Bluegrace Portuguese Water Dogs Reprinted with permission It’s quite a common question that gets asked, and it is important that you ask it. In our society, breeding dogs is not a right. It is a privilege that far too many people take for granted. We are the guardians of our dogs, […]

Saying Goodbye Part 1     

Eventually, as their pet’s age, many Guardians are faced with making final decisions for their pets. A decision concerning euthanasia may be one of the most difficult decisions you will ever make for your pet, but it may become necessary for the animal’s welfare. Your decision is a personal one, but it need not be […]

Poison Hazards     

Dogs and cats, especially puppies or kittens, can get into everything! Be aware of the plants you have in your home and yard. The ingestion of azalea, oleander, castor bean, sago palm, Easter lily or yew plant material by an animal can be fatal. Household Dangers Never allow your pets to have access to the […]

Grooming Tips for Winter    

Hair Care There is a common misconception that your dog needs to keep all of its hair for warmth in the winter. However, most of our canine companions don’t need this protection from the cold, as they spend a majority of their time inside where it is warm, with us. For those times when your […]

Common Grooming Supplies    

Here are some common grooming supplies that you should keep close for your pet. Ear Cleaner Be sure to use cleaners that are specifically made for your dog or cat’s ears. Do not use alcohol, which can dry and irritate the delicate skin inside the ear, or mineral oil, which can create a greasy mess […]

Common Grooming Equipment    

Combs There are many types of combs, with or without handles, teeth widely spaced or close together, long or short teeth, etc. While many of these are acceptable for home use, the comb most recommended is the steel half fine, half coarse comb. It is durable and can be used for all stages of grooming. […]

Cleaning Your Dog’s Ears    

By Dr. Al Townshend Signs of a Problem Your dog’s ears should be free of debris, dirt, or excess wax with no odor, sores, or inflammation. A quick inspection of your dog’s ears can rule out any surface area issues. If your dog is shaking his head, tilting his head, or rubbing the ears, it […]

Choosing a Hairstyle to Suit Your Lifestyle    

There are four basic categories of grooming styles, and most dogs will belong to one of these. When getting an idea of what you would like your dog to look like, keep in mind the amount of at home maintenance each clip requires, your dog’s health and attitude towards grooming, and the amount of time […]

Brushing Your Dog’s Teeth    

Poor oral hygiene can cause serious or sometimes even life threatening problems for your dog, yet it is often overlooked. Having your pet’s teeth brushed only at the groomer’s is not enough; the onus is on the conscientious Guardian to maintain their dog’s teeth with regular brushing. Regular dental care can not only add years […]

The Basics of Bathing Your Dog    

Bathing your dog at home can be an adventure, especially if you are ill-prepared. This article can offer a few useful tips to help you along the path to a cleaner companion. Water Temperature Water temperature plays an integral part in the safety and enjoyment of bathing your dog. Unlike humans, dogs cannot tolerate hot […]

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